Sunday, December 11, 2011
The presentation above describes the stages of the process. Second Language Acquisition
This video will help teachers with classroom management to provide an effective learning environment by creating a culture of engagement and motivation for their students. Administrators can also use this video to provide staff development to their teachers and staff helping them with classroom management and engagement. This video emphasizes engagement, motivation, building relationships, and Checking for Understanding (CFU). This is part two which is more about engagement and motivation to provide opportunity for student and teacher success. Learning cannot happen without a safe, secure, and comfortable learning environment for students that provides engagement and makes students feel valued. All stakeholders; administrators, teachers, and students will benefit from the tips and strategies illustrated in this video.
• A mistake that students know is wrong but keep making.
• An error from force of habit which students no longer know they are making.
• Something that students learnt wrong and now need to change.
• An error that students can correct when focused but still make on their own.
• A mistake that recurs despite constant correction.
• An error based in L1 interference that is made by many speakers.
• Mistakes that teachers may not “hear” after a number of years teaching in a particular context (and therefore do not correct).
• A mistake that has been repeated so that it sounds right to the learner.
We tried to come up with ideas about why errors become fossilized.
What actually causes fossilization?
• Fossilization is due to L1 interference and is a natural feature of interlanguage development.
• Lack of correction.
• The connection between interlanguage and errors.
• Method of instruction.
• Errors that come from previous stages of learning (especially with older students).
• Linear modes of instruction increase the chance of fossilization.
• When students realize they can make a mistake and be understood, it can become fossilized.
• Lack of learner autonomy – reliance on correction by teacher.
Practical Ideas to Overcome Fossilization
• Recording students – you could play the recording, ask for general impression, give them the typescript, have them correct their own or peer’s errors.
• Have students self correct and peer correct, which is more effective than teacher correction.
• Playing games with individual mistakes or common errors.
• Focus on one error at a time, stopping students and having them correct it before moving on.
• Give students a funny look when they make a fossilized error – they will realize something is wrong and correct them (not to be tried with new or very shy students!)
• Discover and clarify why and how errors occur.
• Personalized “fossil” diaries where students record their particular errors.
• Focus on fossilized errors at the end of an activity.
• Keep a “fossil” dictionary.
• Dictations using common errors.
• Write answers/problems on the board to discuss as a class.
• Error diaries – students observe themselves out of class and report back on their usage.
• Have a wiki – each student has their own page for errors.
• Don’t correct individual students on the spot, but save errors for class correction at the end.
• Students must be invested in correcting the error.
• Motivate students to experiment with language.
• Ask some students to be monitors and write down what they hear during speaking activities.
• Recording students can make students more careful – karaoke effect.
• Explain the consequences of mistakes, especially embarrassing ones.
• Students as teachers – note down errors for constructive feedback in groups.
• Have students mimic different accents (this cuts down on inhibitions that cause mistakes).
• Mixing correct and incorrect sentences on the board and asking students to spot those with errors.
"Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill." Stephen Krashen
According to Schütz (2007) "The Input hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how the learner acquires a second language... The Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'. According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses along the 'natural order' when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. For example, if a learner is at a stage 'i', then acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'. Since not all of the learners can be at the same level of linguistic competence at the same time, Krashen suggests that natural communicative input is the key to designing a syllabus, ensuring in this way that each learner will receive some 'i + 1' input that is appropriate for his/her current stage of linguistic competence."